Why to choose LED bulbs?

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LED lights are so into electric fashion these days. A major shifting has been observed towards LED lights. Whether its in homes, offices, shops or any type of space. The primary reason for this shifting is that LED lights are energy efficient and costs you way less bills with more brightness. Let’s get into a detail storyline of LED bulbs and learn about them.

What are LED bulbs?

LED bulbs have light emitting diodes that gets illuminated, when electricity passes through a microchip. LED is a semi-conductor that emits light. Their functionality is simple and they are produced at a lower cost, yielding much higher electricity that bills way lesser than incandescent bulbs and compact fluorescent bulbs. The simple LED lights have transformed the electrical world and has opened new doors for possibilities. They light up your digital clocks, traffic lights, appliances, operate tv remotes, watches and your whole tv screen.

How do LEDs work?

We have all read in our Physics book that light is a form of energy. Light is released by atoms. Atoms have both proton and electrons. LED emits light through electrons. When electron jumps from a higher orbit to a lower orbit it releases a photon which emits light. Photons are a basic unit of light. LED lights do not burn like old candescent bulbs and similarly do not get hot. Their heating process is different. They get dimmer with time and their heat gets absorbed into a sink. Candescent bulbs have filaments that get hot, but LEDs do not have filaments.

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Close up image colored LED bulbs

LED lights in remote controls

LED lights perform in so many devices other than bulbs. They are used in remote controls. Thanks to their materials, they are flexible enough to be shaped so smaller and work effectively. The mechanism involves a silicon diode, in which electrons have lesser gap and fall at a short distance. Due to their low jump, the light emission frequency is lower, impossible for human eye to see. It lies in infrared area of light spectrum. This way, it is easily used in remote controls using infrared LEDs.

LED Colors and Materials

The semi conductor diode that is used as a main component, can be made from different materials or elements. Like we discussed earlier about usage of silicon diode in remote controls. Different materials are used to get different colors. Each wavelength emits a different color if we study the light spectrum. As we know, The jumping of electrons emits light in a color, consequently, electrons in different materials will emit different light of colors. The shell gap (band gap) decides the energy of light particles in a particular diode. We can choose our favourite color by setting the band gap and control the wavelength that emits the light.

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New Year street decorations of tinsel and LED light bulbs. Christmas Decoration

Materials in the diode are chosen from the periodic table. Time to recall your chemistry book. These LED materials are compounds, usually taken from Group III and Group V. These are usually Gallium Nitride, Gallium Arsenide and Gallium Phosphide. Common LED colors are blue, green, red, amber, yellow.

Semi conductor materialWavelengthcolor
Gallium Arsenide (GaAs)859-940nmInfrared
Gallium Arsenide Phosphide (GaAsP)630-660nmRed
Gallium Arsenide Phosphide (GaAsP)605-620nmAmber
Gallium Arsenide Phosphide; Nitride (GaAsP;N)585-595nmYellow
Aluminum Gallium Phosphide (AlGaP)550-570nmGreen
Silicon Carbide (SiC)430-505nmBlue
Gallium Indium Nitride450nmWhite

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